Neurological manifestations of postcovid syndrome

This article is in "Library" - "COVID-19" section.

Author:
P.R. KAMCHATNOV1, R.A. CHEREMIN2, L.A. SKIPETROVA2, A.V. CHUGUNOV1
1N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia;
2Center of Speech Pathology and Neurorehabilitation, Moscow, Russia

Read more.


Neurological manifestations of postcovid syndrome

Author:
P.R. KAMCHATNOV1, R.A. CHEREMIN2, L.A. SKIPETROVA2, A.V. CHUGUNOV1
1N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia;
2Center of Speech Pathology and Neurorehabilitation, Moscow, Russia

Summary:
The problem of postcovid syndrome (PCS) attracts great interest due to the wide prevalence and variety of clinical manifestations. The main neurological manifestations of PCS are considered. The information about the proposed mechanisms of the formation of PCS is given. The possibility of using the drug Mexidol for the treatment of patients with PCS is discussed. Keywords: COVID‑19, postcovid syndrome, cognitive impairment, chronic cerebral ischemia, Mexidol, treatment.


Study of the efficacy and safety of sequential use of the drugs Mexidol and Mexidol FORTE 250 in the treatment of stroke

This article is in "Library" - "Neurology" section.

Author:

S.M. KARPOV1, M.YU. MOROZOVA2, K.A. MURAVYOV2, I.A. VYSHLOVA1, F.S. KANTEMIROVA3

1Stavropol State Medical University, Stavropol, Russia;
2City Clinical Hospital No. 3, Stavropol, Russia;
3Georgievsky Medical Academy, Simferopol, Russia

Read more.


Study of the efficacy and safety of sequential use of the drugs Mexidol and Mexidol FORTE 250 in the treatment of stroke

Author:

S.M. KARPOV1, M.YU. MOROZOVA2, K.A. MURAVYOV2, I.A. VYSHLOVA1, F.S. KANTEMIROVA3

1Stavropol State Medical University, Stavropol, Russia;
2City Clinical Hospital No. 3, Stavropol, Russia;
3Georgievsky Medical Academy, Simferopol, Russia

Summary:
Objective. To evaluate the effect of Mexidol on the recovery of cognitive functions in patients after ischemic stroke (IS). Material and methods. We examined 70 patients with acute IS, who were randomized into 2 groups by random sampling; The 1st group consisted of patients who, against the background of the main standard therapy for 14 days, received Mexidol intravenously, 500 mg 1 time per day, followed by oral administration of Mexidol FORTE 250, 750 mg per day for 60 days (40 patients; 28 men, 12 women). Group 2 consisted of 30 patients (21 men, 9 women) who received only standard therapy. Results. Baseline scores on the MoCA and MMSE scales did not differ between the two groups. Retesting showed that the improvement on these scales was statistically more significant in the 1st group. The analysis of indicators of the evoked potential P300 confirmed a more pronounced positive trend in the 1st group (p<0.01). Conclusion. The use of sequential therapy with Mexidol is accompanied by a more complete recovery of cognitive functions in patients who have undergone IS. Keywords: stroke, acute cerebrovascular accident, cognitive impairment, Mexidol, Mexidol FORTE 250.


Generic drugs: benefit/risk ratio

This article is in "Library" section.

Author:
Ushkalova E.A.1, Zyryanov S.K.1,2, Gopienko I.A.1

1Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow;
2City Clinical Hospital Twenty-Four, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow, Russia

Read more.


Antioxidant activity and toxicity of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate and edaravone: comparative in vitro experiment

This article is in "Library" section.

Author:
A.V. SHCHUL’KIN, YU.V. ABALENIKHINA, P.D. EROKHINA, AND E.N. YAKUSHEVA

Ryazan State Medical University, ul. Vysokovoltnaya 9, Ryazan, 390026 Russia

Read more.


Generic drugs: benefit/risk ratio

Author:
Ushkalova E.A.1, Zyryanov S.K.1,2, Gopienko I.A.1

1Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow;
2City Clinical Hospital Twenty-Four, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow, Russia

Summary:
The review discusses the interchangeability of medications, approaches to the registration of original and generic drugs, and types of their equivalence, as well as problems with generics in clinical practice. Results of pharmacoepidemiological studies, which have been widely carried out recently, speak of insufficient understanding of the impact of generics on remote outcomes of chronic diseases, including mortality. The longterm economic prospects of generic drug administration continue to remain unclear. Among the primary differences between generics and brandname drugs are the differences in active ingredient synthesis methods and the composition of adjuvants and additives. Comparative studies on the therapeutic equivalence of generics with their originals or between themselves are rarely conducted. They are often affected by methodological flaws, which cannot ensure their comparable efficacy and safety. In this regard, automatic replacement of drugs containing the same active ingredient should be avoided without the participation of the attending physician. Keywords: generics; bioequivalence; pharmaceutical equivalence; therapeutic equivalence; interchangeability.


Antioxidant activity and toxicity of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate and edaravone: comparative in vitro experiment

Author:
A.V. SHCHUL’KIN, YU.V. ABALENIKHINA, P.D. EROKHINA, AND E.N. YAKUSHEVA

Ryazan State Medical University, ul. Vysokovoltnaya 9, Ryazan, 390026 Russia

Summary:
The cytotoxic effect and antioxidant activity of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHPS) and edaravone were compared in a concentration range of 5 – 5000 mM. The cytotoxic effect was assessed on the HEK293 cell line using the MTT test. The oxidative stress (OS) was modeled by incubation of cells with hydrogen peroxide (Н2О2) at a concentration of 5 mM for an exposure duration of 24 h. The antioxidant activity of both substances was analyzed using their effects on the level of carbonyl derivatives of proteins and TBA-reactive products in the lysate of HEK293 cells. EMHPS reduced the viability of cells only at a concentration of 5 mM to 64.46 + 9.17% (p = 0,021), while edaravone was effective at concentrations of 5, 1, and 0.5 mM by reducing the viability of
cells to 44.55 + 7.43% (p = 0,008), 57.11 + 11.79% (p = 0,013), and 67.97 + 28.07% (p = 0,059), respectively. The OS modeling was accompanied by decrease in the viability of cells to 24.50 + 14.14% (p = 0,033). Both EMHPS and edaravone at concentrations of 50 and 100 mM prevented decrease in the cell viability under OS conditions. However, the EMHPS effect at a concentration of 100 mM was stronger by 30.6% ( p = 0.054) than that of edaravone at a similar concentration in reducing the content of carbonyl derivatives of proteins in the cell lysate. At concentrations of 100 and 50 mM, EMHPS decreased the level of TBA-reactive products in the lysate also stronger than did edaravone – by 43.8% ( p = 0.003) and 38.7% ( p = 0.05), respectively. Thus, results of this study show that EMHPS is a less toxic substance and has more pronounced antioxidant properties in comparison to edaravone.

Keywords: ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate; edaravone; oxidative stress; hydrogen peroxide; HEK293 cell line; toxicity; viability.


Original and generic drugs: what does the clinician need to know?

Author:
A.V. SHCHULKIN, A.A. FILIMONOVA

Ryazan State Medical University, Ryazan, Russia

Summary:
In the review article modern approaches to testing and registration of generic drugs are discussed. The article presents the history of the formation of the methodology for testing generic drugs and the current legislation of the Russian Federation. The stages of confirmation of equivalence of original and generic drugs are described: pharmaceutical equivalence, bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. The methods of assessing bioequivalence — as the main research in the registration of generic drugs — are discussed in detail. Using the example of the original neuroprotector — Mexidol (ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate) and its generics, it is described how legislative acts are implemented in practice. It is concluded that not all generic drugs are interchangeable for the original drug. Keywords: original and generics drugs, ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate, mexidol.


Original and generic drugs: what does the clinician need to know?

This article is in "Library" section.

Author:

A.V. SHCHULKIN, A.A. FILIMONOVA

Ryazan State Medical University, Ryazan, Russia

Read more.