Antioxidants/antihypoxants: the missing puzzle piece in effective pathogenetic therapy for COVID-19

Author:
T.A. VORONINA
V.V.Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology, Moscow, Russian Federation

Summary:
This review focuses on the specific characteristics of COVID-19 disease, which leads not only to respiratory impairments (bronchoalveolar epithelium does not retain oxygen, etc.), but also decreases the level of hemoglobin and its ability to transfer oxygen to the organs and tissues and increases the level of heme, resulting in anoxemia, hypoxia in all organs and tissues, and oxidative stress. Mexidol, a drug developed in Russia, is widely used in clinical practice, including the treatment of diseases accompanied by ischemia and hypoxia. Mexidol has antihypoxic and antioxidant effects, can treat mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, thereby affecting the key processes in different cells of organs and tissues that develop due to hypoxia. Mexidol can be useful in the comprehensive therapy of patients with COVID-19. Key words: COVID-19, antioxidant, antihypoxant, hemoglobin, hypoxia, Mexidol, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress.


The role of oxidative stress in the development of vascular cognitive disorders

Author:
A.N. BOGOLEPOVA
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia;
Federal Center of Brain Research and Neurotechnologies, Moscow, Russia

Summary:
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is one of the most serious problems of clinical neurology, being the second most common cause of dementia. VCI covers a range of disorders in which vascular factors cause or contribute to cognitive decline. Among the main risk factors for VCI are old age and vascular factors, which lead to endothelial dysfunction and damage, which, in turn, can cause neurovascular dysfunction, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, and microvascular thrombosis. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms for the development of VCI that indicates the need for the use of agents with antioxidant activity. One of these drugs is ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (mexidol). Mexidol is a drug with marked antioxidant and antihypoxic activities. The clinical efficacy of mexidol in relation to VCI has been demonstrated in many studies. Keywords: chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, oxidative stress, vascular cognitive impairment, endothelial dysfunction, mexidol.


Mexidol® and Mexidol® FORTE 250 in consecutive therapy of cognitive disorders in comorbid patients with joint pathology on the background of arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease

Author:
L.N. ELISEEVA, S.V. KARTASHOVA
Kuban State Medical University of the Ministry of Healthcare of Russia, Krasnodar

Summary:
The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy, safety and possibility of correcting the neuropsychiatric manifestations of chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) by Mexidol® on the background of arterial hypertension (AH), atherosclerosis (IHD), osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Material and methods. We examined 134 patients 45–75 years old with neurovizualized CCI, combined with hypertension, coronary artery disease, and joints pathology. Group 1 (observation) included 79 patients – 30 patients with RA (subgroup 1А) and 49 patients with OA of knee joints (subgroup 1B), who got Mexidol® in their complex therapy. Group 2 (control) consisted of 30 patients – 25 patients with RA (subgroup 2A) and patients with OA (subgroup 2B), who got basic therapy without Mexidol® addition. The dynamics of subjective and physical symptoms, values on the CGI, MoCA, MFI 20 scales, anxiety and depression scales of Hamilton and Tinnetti were estimated. Mexidol® was administered intravenously (500 mg per day) for 14 days, followed by oral administration of Mexidol® FORTE 250 by 250 mg 3 times/day for another 60 days. Results. On the background of constant standard complex therapy, an increasing improvement was revealed in all studied indexes in cases of additional use of Mexidol®. In control groups, the cognitive status did not change. The use of initiating intravenous therapy with Mexidol® increased the adherence of patients to long-term use of the drug. Conclusion. Locomotor dysfunctions in polymorbid patients are partially associated with CCI. The additional appointment of sequential infusion and tablet forms of Mexidol® significantly improves cognitive functions with the correction of walking stability, asthenic manifestations, and increases motivation for active life. Key words: chronic cerebral ischemia, Mexidol®, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease.


Mexidol® and Mexidol® FORTE 250 in consecutive therapy of cognitive disorders in comorbid patients with joint pathology on the background of arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease

Author:
L.N. ELISEEVA, S.V. KARTASHOVA
Kuban State Medical University of the Ministry of Healthcare of Russia, Krasnodar

Summary:
The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy, safety and possibility of correcting the neuropsychiatric manifestations of chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) by Mexidol® on the background of arterial hypertension (AH), atherosclerosis (IHD), osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Material and methods. We examined 134 patients 45–75 years old with neurovizualized CCI, combined with hypertension, coronary artery disease, and joints pathology. Group 1 (observation) included 79 patients – 30 patients with RA (subgroup 1А) and 49 patients with OA of knee joints (subgroup 1B), who got Mexidol® in their complex therapy. Group 2 (control) consisted of 30 patients – 25 patients with RA (subgroup 2A) and patients with OA (subgroup 2B), who got basic therapy without Mexidol® addition. The dynamics of subjective and physical symptoms, values on the CGI, MoCA, MFI 20 scales, anxiety and depression scales of Hamilton and Tinnetti were estimated. Mexidol® was administered intravenously (500 mg per day) for 14 days, followed by oral administration of Mexidol® FORTE 250 by 250 mg 3 times/day for another 60 days. Results. On the background of constant standard complex therapy, an increasing improvement was revealed in all studied indexes in cases of additional use of Mexidol®. In control groups, the cognitive status did not change. The use of initiating intravenous therapy with Mexidol® increased the adherence of patients to long-term use of the drug. Conclusion. Locomotor dysfunctions in polymorbid patients are partially associated with CCI. The additional appointment of sequential infusion and tablet forms of Mexidol® significantly improves cognitive functions with the correction of walking stability, asthenic manifestations, and increases motivation for active life. Key words: chronic cerebral ischemia, Mexidol®, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease.


The efficacy and safety of Mexidol and Mexidol Forte 250 in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia

Author:
Yu.V. ABRAMENKO
Tver State Medical University, Tver, Russia

Summary:
Objective. To study the efficacy and safety of mexidol’s intravenous injections (500 mg once a day) for 14 days, followed by oral administration of mexidol FORTE 250 at a dose of 250 mg (1 tablet) 3 times a day for 60 days, in treatment of chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) in patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries. Material and methods. The observation program included 60 patients with an established diagnosis of CCI confirmed by neuroimaging methods. Patients of the main group (n=26) received mexidol along with basic therapy, patients of the comparison group (n=26) received only basic therapy. Results and conclusion. The results of the experience show the high efficacy and safety of sequential therapy (parenteral therapy followed by tablets of mexidol FORTE 250). The treatment improves emotional and cognitive status, decreases static-motor disorders and severity of subjective neurological symptoms. High adherence of patients to the therapy is shown.
Keywords: chronic cerebral ischemia, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries, mexidol, static-motor
disorders, cognitive impairment.


Geroprotective effects of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate in an experimental study

Author:
T.A. VORONINA

FSBI «Zakusov Institute of Pharmacology», Moscow

Summary:
Objective. To study an effect of mexidol on the life expectancy, weight, seizure response thresholds, and impaired cognitive and
motor functions during aging in male Wistar rats. Material and methods. In a long-term experiment, male Wistar rats, aged 3—26 months, were assessed for impaired cognitive functions (passive avoidance conditioned reflex test), convulsive threshold (test with pentylenetetrazole), motor deficits (tests of rotating rod and pulling on the crossbar), and life expectancy. The rats received mexidol in the form of 0,15% solution, which replaced drinking water, during two 2 month courses at the age of 18—20 and 22—24 month. A dose of mexidol consumed by the rat was 40-75 mg/kg/day. Results. In old male Wistar rats, the long-term treatment with mexidol increases the life expectancy, improves learning, preservation and reproduction of the memory trace in the passive avoidance conditioned reflex test, increases the convulsive threshold and improves muscle tone and coordination of movements that are impaired during aging. Conclusion. Mexidol increases the threshold of convulsive reaction, restores cognitive and neurological deficits that occur during aging in male Wistar rats and increases the by its ability to influence mitochondriogenesis and antioxidant properties.
Keywords: aging, mexidol, life expectancy, memory impairment, neurological deficit, convulsive threshold.


The effect of Mexidol on cerebral mitochondriogenesis at a young age and during aging

Author:
YU.I. KIROVA1, F.M. SHAKOVA1, E.L. GERMANOVA1, G.A. ROMANOVA1, T.A. VORONINA2

1 Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia;

2 Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology, Moscow, Russia

Summary:
Objective. To study the ability of mexidol to induce cerebral mitochondriogenesis in the brain of young and aging rats. Material and methods. Expression level of marker proteins of cerebral mitochondriogenesis was evaluated during treatment with mexidol (20, 40, 100 mg/kg; 20 days; intraperitoneally) in the cerebral cortex of young (3 month) and aging (6, 9, 12, and 15 month) outbred male rats, using the Western blot analysis. Results. It has been shown for the first time that the course injections of mexidol in doses of 40 and 100 mg/kg is accompanied by dose-dependent induction of the succinate receptor SUCNR1 and protein markers of mitochondrial biogenesis: transcription coactivator PGC-1α, transcription factors (NRF1, TFAM), catalytic subunits of respiratory enzymes (NDUV2, NDUV2,cytb, COX2) and ATP synthase (ATP5A) in the cerebral cortex of young and aging outbred male rats. Mexidol-dependent overexpression of subunits of mitochondrial enzymes and PGC-1α is observed only with the course of the drug. Conclusion. The results indicate the ability of mexidol to induce cerebral mitochondriogenesis and eliminate mitochondrial dysfunction in young and aging animals and, thus, exert an effect on one of the key pathogenetic links of the development of disorders in aging and neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: aging, mitochondrial dysfunction, mexidol, succinate receptor, cerebral mitochondriogenesis, transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α, respiratory enzyme subunits, rats, Western blot analysis.


Efficacy and safety of the drug Mexidol forte 250 as part of long-term sequential therapy in patients with carotid stroke

Author:
I.A. STRELNIKOVA1, A.A. SVETKINA1,2, O.V. ANDROFAGINA1

1 Samara Regional Clinical Hospital named after V.D. Seredavina, Samara, Russia;

2 Samara State Medical University, Samara, Russia

Summary:
Objective. To evaluate an effect of long-term sequential therapy with mexidol and mexidol forte on the functional outcome of patients with carotid ischemic stroke. Material and methods. The study included 50 patients with newly developed carotid stroke, hospitalized in the stroke unit on the first day from the onset of the disease. Patients of the main group (n=25) received mexidol in a dose of 500 mg intravenously once a day for 14 days, then mexidol forte 250 in tabs 250 mg 3 times a day for 60 days. Patients of the comparison group (n=25) received standard basic therapy. The significance of intergroup differences was assessed using the Mann—Whitney test, Fisher’s exact test, and relative risk (OR) calculation. Differences were considered significant at a level of p<0,05. Results. After 14 days of therapy, both groups of patients showed a positive trend compared to baseline. At the same time, patients of the mexidol group had a higher MoCA score (U=173,5, p=0,006), a lower score when performing tasks on dynamic praxis (U=214,0, p=0,028) and optical spatial disturbances (U=170,5, p=0,003), better memorization strength (181,5, p = 0,006) and better performance on abstraction MOCA subtest (U=200,5, p=0,014). By the 74th day, the absence of moderate cognitive impairment (MoCA> 26 points) was diagnosed in 17 patients (68%) of the main group and 14 patients (56%) of the comparison group. No significant differences were found. Moreover, patients of the main group had a significantly lower NIHSS score (U=124,0, p<0,001) and a lower degree of disability: a total mRS score 0—2 was achieved in 19 (76%) patients of the main group and only in 12 (48%) patients of the comparison group (OR=3,34, F=0,07, p<0,05). Also, patients receiving long-term sequential therapy with mexidol and mexidol forte 250 had milder spatial disorders than patients of the comparison group. Conclusion. Consecutive treatment with mexidol and mexidol forte 250 in the acute and early recovery periods of ischemic stroke positively affects the regression of local neurological symptoms, increases the likelihood of achieving independence in everyday life by 3,34 times, and reduces the severity of optical-spatial, neurodynamic and memory impairments.
Keywords: ischemic stroke, mexidol, mexidol forte 250, cognitive impairment, functional outcome.