Arterial hypertension, cognitive disorders and dementia: a view of a cardiologist

Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry named after A.I. Evdakimov, Moscow, Russia; I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State
Medical University, Moscow, Russia; Central State Medical Academy of Department of Presidential Affairs, Moscow, Russia

This article presents a review of Russian and foreign literature about the impact of arterial hypertension (AH) on the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Large studies have demonstrated the effect of blood pressure (BP) on the risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in elderly and oldest old people as well as a role of antihypertensive therapy. There is evidence of a negative effect of hypertension in middle age on cognitive functions in late-life. Observational studies as a whole have shown the positive effect of antihypertensive therapy on the prevention of cognitive function and dementia. However, there are a number of limitations that dictate the need for further research on this issue. The importance of the interdisciplinary approach to treatment of cognitive impairment by cardiologists and/or therapists, together with neurologists, as well as complex treatment regimens, including correction of risk factors and neuroprotective therapy, is highlighted.

Keywords: arterial hypertension, cognitive impairment, dementia, Alzheimer disease, antihypertensive therapy.