The role of oxidative stress in the development of vascular cognitive disorders

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia;
Federal Center of Brain Research and Neurotechnologies, Moscow, Russia

Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is one of the most serious problems of clinical neurology, being the second most common cause of dementia. VCI covers a range of disorders in which vascular factors cause or contribute to cognitive decline. Among the main risk factors for VCI are old age and vascular factors, which lead to endothelial dysfunction and damage, which, in turn, can cause neurovascular dysfunction, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, and microvascular thrombosis. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms for the development of VCI that indicates the need for the use of agents with antioxidant activity. One of these drugs is ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (mexidol). Mexidol is a drug with marked antioxidant and antihypoxic activities. The clinical efficacy of mexidol in relation to VCI has been demonstrated in many studies. Keywords: chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, oxidative stress, vascular cognitive impairment, endothelial dysfunction, mexidol.