Role of free radical oxidation, hypoxia and their correction in COVID-19 pathogenesis

Author:
A.V. SCHULKIN, A.A. FILIMONOVA

Academician I.P. Pavlov Ryazan State Medical University of the Ministry of Healthcare of Russia

Summary:
In following review, the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), the features of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, are shown in peculiarities. Due to big importance of oxidative stress and hypoxia in the development of this infection paid to, it has been suggested that the use of antioxidants and antihypoxants in the complex treatment of COVID-19 may be useful and significantly improve the course of the disease.
Key words: COVID-19, coronaviruses, oxidative stress, hypoxia.


Antioxidants/antihypoxants: the missing puzzle piece in effective pathogenetic therapy for COVID-19

Author:
T.A. VORONINA
V.V.Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology, Moscow, Russian Federation

Summary:
This review focuses on the specific characteristics of COVID-19 disease, which leads not only to respiratory impairments (bronchoalveolar epithelium does not retain oxygen, etc.), but also decreases the level of hemoglobin and its ability to transfer oxygen to the organs and tissues and increases the level of heme, resulting in anoxemia, hypoxia in all organs and tissues, and oxidative stress. Mexidol, a drug developed in Russia, is widely used in clinical practice, including the treatment of diseases accompanied by ischemia and hypoxia. Mexidol has antihypoxic and antioxidant effects, can treat mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, thereby affecting the key processes in different cells of organs and tissues that develop due to hypoxia. Mexidol can be useful in the comprehensive therapy of patients with COVID-19. Key words: COVID-19, antioxidant, antihypoxant, hemoglobin, hypoxia, Mexidol, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress.


The role of oxidative stress in the development of vascular cognitive disorders

Author:
A.N. BOGOLEPOVA
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia;
Federal Center of Brain Research and Neurotechnologies, Moscow, Russia

Summary:
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is one of the most serious problems of clinical neurology, being the second most common cause of dementia. VCI covers a range of disorders in which vascular factors cause or contribute to cognitive decline. Among the main risk factors for VCI are old age and vascular factors, which lead to endothelial dysfunction and damage, which, in turn, can cause neurovascular dysfunction, increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, and microvascular thrombosis. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms for the development of VCI that indicates the need for the use of agents with antioxidant activity. One of these drugs is ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (mexidol). Mexidol is a drug with marked antioxidant and antihypoxic activities. The clinical efficacy of mexidol in relation to VCI has been demonstrated in many studies. Keywords: chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, oxidative stress, vascular cognitive impairment, endothelial dysfunction, mexidol.